What physics can we learn from Sheldon and Wolowitz's debate

Sheldon: How would you determine the ground state of a quantum system with no exact solution?

Howard: I would guess a wave-function and then vary its parameters until I found the lowest energy solution.

A wave function or wavefunction (also named a state function) in quantum mechanics describes the quantum state of a system of one or more particles, and contains all the information about the system considered in isolation.


Quantum theory: the weird world of teleportation, tardigrades and entanglement

... entanglement also may enable pigeons and robins to navigate. These birds detect the Earth’s magnetic field, apparently due to quantum entanglement in their eyes. Light coming into the eye boosts the energy of electrons. A property of the electrons called ‘spin’ is then influenced by tiny variations in the Earth’s magnetic field, and it is thought that quantum entanglement makes it possible for the bird to build a picture by linking different electrons.

How AI and Quantum Computing May Alter Humanity’s Future

K├Ânig and the AI research team showed that quantum outperforms classical computing and that quantum effects can “enhance information-processing capabilities and speed up the solution of certain computational problems.” In their research, the team demonstrated that parallel quantum algorithms running in a constant time outperform classical computers. The scientists showed that quantum computers only required a fixed number of steps for problem solving and was better at “solving certain linear algebra problems associated with binary quadratic forms.”

Forward-thinking organizations recognize the synergistic boost that the combination of quantum computing and artificial intelligence may herald. Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella stated in a WSJ Magazine interview, “What’s the next breakthrough that will allow us to keep up this exponential growth in computing power and to solve problems—whether it’s about climate or food production or drug discovery? I think that’s where quantum plays a role." Per Nadella, artificial intelligence and quantum computing are "going to shape a lot of the technology going forward.”

What Is Quantum Computing?

D-Wave is the most well-funded private quantum computing company with $210M raised to date, followed by Rigetti Computing ($119M), Silicon Quantum Computing ($66M), and Cambridge Quantum Computing (CQC) ($50M).
Notably, deals to these four companies accounted for ~70% of the industry’s total funding since 2013. Additionally, deals to private quantum computing companies overall reached an all-time high in 2018.

Room-Temperature Superconductivity

Two independent studies report superconductivity at record high temperatures in hydrogen-rich materials under extreme pressure.


Evidence for Superconductivity above 260 K in Lanthanum Superhydride at Megabar Pressures

Maddury Somayazulu, Muhtar Ahart, Ajay K. Mishra, Zachary M. Geballe, Maria Baldini, Yue Meng, Viktor V. Struzhkin, and Russell J. Hemley
Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 027001 (2019)
Published January 14, 2019

A. P. Drozdov, M. I. Eremets, I. A. Troyan, V. Ksenofontov, and S. I. Shylin, “Conventional superconductivity at 203 kelvin at high pressures in the sulfur hydride system,” Nature 525, 73 (2015).
M. Somayazulu, M. Ahart, A. K. Mishra, Z. M. Geballe, M. Baldini, Y. Meng, V. V. Struzhkin, and R. J. Hemley, “Evidence for superconductivity above 260 K in lanthanum superhydride at megabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 122, 027001 (2019).
A. P. Drozdov et al., “Superconductivity at 250 K in lanthanum hydride under high pressures,” arXiv:1812.01561.
N. W. Ashcroft, “Metallic hydrogen: A high-temperature superconductor?,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1748 (1968).

Quantum computer: We're planning to create one that acts like a brain

... quantum neural networks can be more powerful than classical AI software in a real world application, it would very quickly become some of the most important technology out there.

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2019-01-quantum-brain.html

The Neuromorphic Quantum Computing (Quromorphic) Project aims to build a computer processor that transfers data in the same way neurons work in the human brain.

... Quantum computers are vastly different to a typical desktop PC.  Their development is very much in the early stages however computing giants including Google, IBM and others are currently investing in the cutting-edge technology. Central to its potential power is its processing unit, made of so called a ‘quantum bits’ or ‘qubits’. If, for example, a 100 qubit quantum computer is increased to 101 qubits, its computing power is expected to double, and for the next qubit added it will double once more.

This dramatic escalation in power has tremendous potential, which the Quoromorphic Project hopes to exploit in order to develop a human brain inspired quantum artificial intelligence.

... the European Commission announced more than half-a-million pounds of funding towards the project.