Science X Newsletter Thursday, Jul 29

Dear ymilog,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for July 29, 2021:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

Battle fatigue can drive T cells to exhaustion: Cancer and viruses are tough to fight

Spin-sonics: Acoustic wave gets the electrons spinning

Understanding past climate change 'tipping points' can help us prepare for the future

In plant cells, a conserved mechanism for perceiving mechanical force resides in unexpected location

Earthly rocks point way to water hidden on Mars

Climate change to fuel increase in human-wildlife conflict

Italian astronomers discover new star cluster

Collisions of light produce matter/antimatter from pure energy

Aerosols add a new wrinkle to climate change in the tropical Pacific Ocean

Consortium identifies more genetic markers for inherited testicular cancer

More carbon emissions will kill more people; here's how many

UK warmer and wetter due to climate change: study

New 'green status of species' measures impact of conservation action

Powerful new ovarian cancer treatments may benefit more patients

ADHD drug class leads to fewer side effects in preschool children

Physics news

Spin-sonics: Acoustic wave gets the electrons spinning

Researchers have detected the rolling movement of a nano-acoustic wave predicted by the famous physicist and Nobel prize winner Lord Rayleigh in 1885. This phenomenon can find applications in acoustic quantum technologies or in so-called "phononic" components, which are used to control the propagation of acoustic waves.

Collisions of light produce matter/antimatter from pure energy

Scientists studying particle collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)—a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science user facility for nuclear physics research at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory—have produced definitive evidence for two physics phenomena predicted more than 80 years ago. The results were derived from a detailed analysis of more than 6,000 pairs of electrons and positrons produced in glancing particle collisions at RHIC and are published in Physical Review Letters.

Scientists use radiography to understand the evolution of liquid and solid microjets

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists have experimentally tested the predictions of a 2020 study that computationally investigated the effect of melting on shock driven metal microjets. That earlier work predicted that melting the base material does not necessarily lead to a substantial increase in jet mass.

Deep learning improves image reconstruction in optical coherence tomography using less data

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging method that can provide 3D information of biological samples. The first generation of OCT systems were based on time-domain imaging, using a mechanical scanning set-up. However, the relatively slow data acquisition speed of these earlier time-domain OCT systems partially limited their use for imaging live specimen. The introduction of the spectral-domain OCT techniques with higher sensitivity has contributed to a dramatic increase in imaging speed and quality. OCT is now widely used in diagnostic medicine, for example in ophthalmology, to noninvasively obtain detailed 3D images of the retina and underlying tissue structure.

New exotic matter particle, a tetraquark, discovered

Today, the LHCb experiment at CERN is presenting a new discovery at the European Physical Society Conference on High Energy Physics (EPS-HEP). The new particle discovered by LHCb, labeled as Tcc+, is a tetraquark—an exotic hadron containing two quarks and two antiquarks. It is the longest-lived exotic matter particle ever discovered, and the first to contain two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks.

Machine-learning technique used to pinpoint quantum errors

Researchers at the University of Sydney and quantum control startup Q-CTRL today announced a way to identify sources of error in quantum computers through machine learning, providing hardware developers the ability to pinpoint performance degradation with unprecedented accuracy and accelerate paths to useful quantum computers.

AI learns physics to optimize particle accelerator performance

Machine learning, a form of artificial intelligence, vastly speeds up computational tasks and enables new technology in areas as broad as speech and image recognition, self-driving cars, stock market trading and medical diagnosis.

A new information storage and processing device

A team of scientists has developed a means to create a new type of memory, marking a notable breakthrough in the increasingly sophisticated field of artificial intelligence. 

Researchers kick-start magnetic spin waves at nanoscale in pursuit of low energy computing

An international team from Delft, Lancaster, Nijmegen, Kiev and Salerno has demonstrated a new technique to generate magnetic waves that propagate through the material at a speed much faster than the speed of sound.

Researchers propose a method of magnetizing a material without applying an external magnetic field

Magnetizing a material without applying an external magnetic field is proposed by researchers at São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil, in an article published in the journal Scientific Reports, where they detail the experimental approach used to achieve this goal.

Astronomy and Space news

Earthly rocks point way to water hidden on Mars

A combination of a once-debunked 19th-century identification of a water-carrying iron mineral and the fact that these rocks are extremely common on Earth, suggests the existence of a substantial water reservoir on Mars, according to a team of geoscientists.

Italian astronomers discover new star cluster

Astronomers from Italy report the detection of a new star cluster as part of the YMCA (Yes, Magellanic Clouds Again) survey. The newly discovered stellar grouping, designated YMCA-1, may be an old and remote star cluster of our Milky Way galaxy. The finding is detailed in a paper published July 21 on the arXiv pre-print repository.

The second-coldest imaged exoplanet found to date

Astronomers have discovered thousands of exoplanets—planets beyond our solar system—but few have been directly imaged, because they are extremely difficult to see with existing telescopes. A University of Hawaiʻi Institute for Astronomy (IfA) graduate student has beaten the odds and discovered a directly imaged exoplanet, and it's the closest one to Earth ever found, at a distance of only 35 light years.

Scientists observe gas re-accretion in dying galaxies for the first time

A new study from scientists using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) suggests that previously displaced gases can re-accrete onto galaxies, potentially slowing down the process of galaxy death caused by ram pressure stripping, and creating unique structures more resistant to its effects.

Russia's Nauka science module docks with ISS

Russia said it successfully docked the Nauka laboratory module with the International Space Station on Thursday—though the troubled unit caused yet another fright after accidentally firing and briefly throwing the entire station out of position.

Mars' bright south pole reflections may be clay—not water

Bright reflections observed at Mars' south pole serve as evidence for water. But, seeing may be deceiving.

Clays, not water, are likely source of Mars 'lakes'

Three studies published in the past month have cast doubt on the premise of subsurface lakes below the Martian south pole.

A new spin on planet formation mysteries

Astronomers have captured the first-ever spin measurements of planets making up the HR 8799 star system.

How the Galileo Project will search the skies for alien technology

Can we find alien technology? That is the ambitious goal of the Galileo Project, launched this week by Harvard astrophysicist Avi Loeb with substantial private financial backing.

Jupiter mission passes space vacuum test

ESA's Juice mission to Jupiter has successfully endured a month of space-like conditions inside the Large Space Simulator, the largest vacuum chamber in Europe.

NASA rocket carrying solar X-ray scanner set to launch

The Marshall Grazing Incidence X-ray Spectrometer, or MaGIXS, mission is about to take flight. The launch window opens at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico on July 30.

NASA performs field test of 3D imaging system for descent and landing

Producing rapid and accurate images on missions to the Moon, Mars and other terrestrial destinations is crucial for a safe descent and landing. A NASA project called Safe and Precise Landing—Integrated Capabilities Evolution, or SPLICE, includes a key element that will help ensure a clearer touchdown site.

Ground system for NASA's Roman Space Telescope moves into development

When it launches in the mid-2020s, NASA's Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope will revolutionize astronomy by building on the science discoveries and technological leaps of the Hubble, Spitzer, and Webb space telescopes. The mission's wide field of view and superb resolution will enable scientists to conduct sweeping cosmic surveys, yielding a wealth of information about celestial realms from our solar system to the edge of the observable universe.

Technology news

Optimizing phase change materials could reduce power plant water consumption

The food-water-energy nexus dictates that there is a direct link between these three necessities, and stressing one directly impacts the supply of the other two. As the population grows, human demand for energy and food has caused freshwater reserves to slowly deplete. Power plants are one of the main culprits contributing to this issue, as they use trillions of gallons of fresh water annually to prevent overheating.

High-precision reference frequency signal can be sent via conventional telecommunications

Many scientific experiments require highly precise time measurements with the help of a clearly defined frequency. Now, a new approach allows the direct comparison of frequency measurements in the lab with the atomic clock in Bern, Switzerland.

Honeypot security technique can also stop attacks in natural language processing

As online fake news detectors and spam filters become more sophisticated, so do attackers' methods to trick them—including attacks through the "universal trigger." In this learning-based method, an attacker uses a phrase or set of words to fool an indefinite number of inputs. A successful attack could mean more fake news appearing in your social media feed or spam reaching your email inbox.

New solid electrolyte promises cheaper, better all-solid-state lithium batteries

Researchers from the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have designed a novel material to make all-solid-state lithium (Li) batteries less costly but more effective, according to an article published in the journal Nature Communicationson July 20.  

Less communication among robots allows them to make better decisions

New research that could help us use swarms of robots to tackle forest fires, conduct search and rescue operations at sea and diagnose problems inside the human body, has been published by engineers at the University of Sheffield.

An organic active adaptation transistor with light intensity-dependent photoadaptation

A team of researchers from the Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, has developed an organic active adaptation transistor (OAAT). In their paper published in the journal Nature Electronics, the group describes how they overcame a hurdle involving charge transport, and explores possible uses for their OAAT.

Ford overcomes computer chip shortage, posts surprise profit

Sky-high sales prices for its pickup trucks and SUVs helped Ford Motor Co. turn a surprise second-quarter profit despite a global shortage of computer chips that cut factory output in half.

Facebook profits top $10B as its CEO exalts the 'metaverse'

Concerns about a revenue growth slowdown pushed Facebook's shares lower in after-hours trading Wednesday, not long after the company reported that its second-quarter profits doubled thanks to a massive increase in advertising revenue.

Samsung reports surge in profit on pandemic-led demand for chips

Samsung Electronics' net profits surged more than 70 percent in the second quarter thanks to higher memory chip prices fuelled by pandemic-led demand, the South Korean tech giant reported Thursday.

Airbus profits take off as deliveries soar

Airbus said Thursday it had bounced back strongly into profit in the first half of the year as aircraft deliveries rose, leading the company to revise its performance forecasts upwards.

From grey to green: world cities uprooting the urban jungle

From lettuces farmed on New York's skyline to thick corridors of trees occupying once desolate Colombian roadsides, green initiatives are running wild in cities around the world.

Nokia profit substantially up on new operating model, 5G

Wireless network maker and 5G technology provider Nokia reported substantially improved second-quarter profit Thursday, citing the help of its new operating model and booming sales of 5G equipment.

VW lowers car deliveries outlook over chip woes

German carmaker Volkswagen posted strong first-half profits on Thursday but cut this year's forecast for car deliveries over a worsening semiconductor chip shortage.

Privacy concerns over contact-free QR codes used in restaurants

Diners could be serving up a lot more than just their burger order if they use the contact-free QR codes suddenly available at many restaurants and bars, warns David Choffnes, who studies cybersecurity at Northeastern.

3D optical memory devices using fluorescent materials would significantly cut global electricity consumption

There's always room for another bright idea when it comes to safely storing the colossal amounts of electronic information we produce every day.

Hurricane straps keep roofs on houses and can improve safety during tornadoes

Many people think of a well-built house as one where the walls are strong enough to hold up the roof so it won't fall on them. This is reinforced by children's stories like the Three Little Pigs, where the house made of brick is the strongest when the Big Bad Wolf comes to town.

What are stablecoins? A blockchain expert explains

Stablecoins are a type of cryptocurrency linked to an asset like the U.S. dollar that doesn't change much in value.

First machine-learning approach to forensic DNA analysis

As the field of forensics evolves, more complex evidence is being processed with greater precision, sensitivity and speed than ever before. To give a real-life example, consider a bank robbery where the perpetrator uses a pen, available to all customers, to write the note which they pass to the teller. In this instance the perpetrator deposited skin cells on this pen, but so did several other people. The result is a complex mixture of DNA from all of these individuals. Where 30 years ago a forensic scientist would probably have needed the bank robber to leave a few drops of blood on the pen to produce a DNA profile, today, they only need a few cells.

Development of CO2-free fermentation technology amid surging demand for low-carbon biofuel

As much as one-third of the carbon in sugar is lost as carbon dioxide (CO2) during fermentation processes that use biomass to make renewable diesel and sustainable aviation fuel (SAF).

Reducing the computational power required to analyze DNA

An approach that reduces the computational power required to analyze huge amounts of DNA data for identifying new microbes and their proteins could be used for manufacturing anything from new antibiotics to plastic-degrading enzymes.

Fast internet everywhere could add $160 billion to US economy

The U.S. economy stands to gain $160 billion a year in extra output from a successful national high-speed internet plan that would boost labor productivity and allow more people to work from home, according to new research.

Study explains lax oversight in Facebook ads during 2016 election

University of Arkansas English professor Adam Pope and his colleague at San Jose State University examined lax oversight of advertising on Facebook during the 2016 political campaign and found a systematic bias toward ad buyers, specifically a Russian internet troll farm that sought to sow discord within the U.S. political system.

Is Facebook 'killing us'? A new study investigates

Following the Surgeon General's July 15 advisory on health misinformation and social media, President Joe Biden remarked that Facebook and other social media platforms are "killing people." Though Biden quickly backpedaled on his remark, Facebook rebutted it, citing instead its own study that showed increasing "vaccine acceptance" by U.S. Facebook users.

Metallic glass gears up for 'cobots,' coatings, and more

Where are the robot assistants we were promised?

China's crackdown on its biggest companies

With market-trembling new rules and investigations, Beijing's crackdown on its most prominent companies has seeped into nearly every aspect of modern life, wiping billions of dollars from Chinese and Hong Kong-listed stocks and bamboozling investment sages.

China tries to ease investor fears over crackdown: report

Beijing scrambled to calm investors after a crackdown on some of China's biggest firms rattled markets with regulators calling bankers in for a last-minute call Wednesday night, Bloomberg reported.

Nikola founder Milton to face securities fraud charges

The founder and one-time executive chair of Nikola Corp. surrendered Thursday in New York to face charges alleging he lied about the electric and hydrogen-powered truck startup, duping some financially struggling novice investors looking for income during the pandemic.

Russia fines Google for violating data storage law

A Moscow court ordered Google on Thursday to pay a fine of 3 million rubles (roughly $41,000) for refusing to store the personal data of Russian users on servers in Russia, a move that is part of the government's longstanding effort to tighten its grip on online activity.

COVID shutdown: Twitter closes San Francisco and New York offices as Delta coronavirus cases surge

Twitter has closed its San Francisco and New York offices as COVID-19 cases surge from the highly contagious delta variant, the latest sign that companies are rethinking their reopening plans and taking new precautions against the coronavirus spread.

Apple to require masks in half of its US stores starting Thursday following CDC mask guidelines

Apple will require shoppers to wear masks again at half of its U.S. stores, the company confirmed to USA TODAY. It is the first major retailer to confirm a change to its policy.

Fast-growing but controversial, Robinhood falls in Nasdaq debut

Robinhood had a rough start on Wall Street Thursday, falling sharply in its Nasdaq debut after the fast-growing online trading app raised $1.9 billion in an initial public offering.

This email is a free service of Science X Network
You received this email because you subscribed to our list.
If you do not wish to receive such emails in the future, please unsubscribe here.
You are subscribed as You may manage your subscription options from your Science X profile


No comments:

Post a Comment