Science X Newsletter Week 22

Dear ymilog,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for week 22:

Research sheds light on origins, age of massive impact crater

Hidden beneath a kilometer of ice in northwestern Greenland, an impact crater that could swallow a city the size of London, Ont. is the subject of much debate about its origins and age.

New research analyses the relationship between cats and their owners

Co-dependent and clingy or casual and aloof—a new study has examined the behavior of pet cats to understand what it means about their relationship with their owner, and the research suggests it's a two-way street!

What if the black hole at the center of the Milky Way is actually a mass of dark matter?

A team of researchers at the International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics has found evidence that suggests Sagittarius A* is not a massive black hole but is instead a mass of dark matter. In their paper published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, the group describes the evidence they found and how it has stood up to testing.

Beer byproduct mixed with manure proves an excellent pesticide

The use of many chemical fumigants in agriculture have been demonstrated to be harmful to human health and the environment and therefore banned from use.

Researchers demonstrate a quantum advantage

Quantum computing and quantum sensing have the potential to be vastly more powerful than their classical counterparts. Not only could a fully realized quantum computer take just seconds to solve equations that would take a classical computer thousands of years, but it could have incalculable impacts on areas ranging from biomedical imaging to autonomous driving.

Ancient dog breed DNA helps unravel clues about evolution of man's best friend

An international study led by UNSW researchers has mapped one of the most intact and complete dog genomes ever generated.

Lasers capable of transmitting signals at 224 gigabits per second, enough to achieve 800 gigabit ethernet

With the massive proliferation of data-heavy services, including high-resolution video streaming and conferencing, cloud services infrastructure growth in 2021 is expected to reach a 27% CAGR. Consequently, while 400 gigabit ethernet (GbE) is currently enjoying widespread deployment, 800 GbE is poised to rapidly follow to address these bandwidth demands.

Why deep freezing iron-based materials makes them both magnetic and superconducting

Physicists at the University of Bath in the UK, in collaboration with researchers from the USA, have uncovered a new mechanism for enabling magnetism and superconductivity to co-exist in the same material. Until now, scientists could only guess how this unusual coexistence might be possible. The discovery could lead to applications in green energy technologies and in the development of superconducting devices, such as next-generation computer hardware.

Magnetism drives metals to insulators in new experiment

Like all metals, silver, copper, and gold are conductors. Electrons flow across them, carrying heat and electricity. While gold is a good conductor under any conditions, some materials have the property of behaving like metal conductors only if temperatures are high enough; at low temperatures, they act like insulators and do not do a good job of carrying electricity. In other words, these unusual materials go from acting like a chunk of gold to acting like a piece of wood as temperatures are lowered. Physicists have developed theories to explain this so-called metal-insulator transition, but the mechanisms behind the transitions are not always clear.

Human brain and testis found to have the highest number of common proteins

A team of researchers from the University of Aveiro and the University of Porto, both in Portugal, and the University of Birmingham in the U.K. has found that for humans, the brain and testis have the highest number of common proteins. In their paper published in the journal Royal Society Open Biology, the group describes their study of protein similarities between tissues.

NASA's Juno to get a close look at Jupiter's moon Ganymede

The first of the gas-giant orbiter's back-to-back flybys will provide a close encounter with the massive moon after over 20 years.

Declassified Cold War code-breaking manual has lessons for solving 'impossible' puzzles

The United States National Security Agency—the country's premier signals intelligence organization—recently declassified a Cold War-era document about code-breaking.

Researchers: Culture drives human evolution more than genetics

In a new study, University of Maine researchers found that culture helps humans adapt to their environment and overcome challenges better and faster than genetics.

The DNA of three aurochs found next to the Elba shepherdess opens up a new enigma for paleontology

Research involving scientists from the University of A Coruña has succeeded in sequencing the oldest mitochondrial genome of the immediate ancestor of modern cows that has been analyzed to date. The remains, some 9,000 years old, were found next to a woman. Why were they with her if cattle had not yet been domesticated? Do they belong to ancestors of today's Iberian cows?

New form of silicon could enable next-gen electronic and energy devices

A team led by Carnegie's Thomas Shiell and Timothy Strobel developed a new method for synthesizing a novel crystalline form of silicon with a hexagonal structure that could potentially be used to create next-generation electronic and energy devices with enhanced properties that exceed those of the "normal" cubic form of silicon used today.

Smashing gold with finesse: Shockless compression experiments establish new pressure scales

To test the Standard Model of particle physics, scientists often collide particles using gigantic underground rings. In a similar fashion, high-pressure physicists compress materials to ever greater pressures to further test the quantum theory of condensed matter and challenge predictions made using the most powerful computers.

Low levels of omega-3 associated with higher risk of psychosis, says study

New research has found that adolescents with higher levels of an omega-3 fatty acid in their blood were less likely to develop psychotic disorder in early adulthood, suggesting that it may have a potential preventative effect of reducing the risk of psychosis.

Reckoning with an animal that sees us as prey—living and working in crocodile country

The wet season in tropical Australia begins with tension. Physical tension, caused by the friction of earth and clouds. Mental tension, caused by the heat, and the expectation of rain and relief. It is also an ecological tension, where every plant and animal is poised—genetically, physiologically—to grow, reap, sow and copulate within a few short months.

Light-shrinking material lets ordinary microscope see in super resolution

Electrical engineers at the University of California San Diego developed a technology that improves the resolution of an ordinary light microscope so that it can be used to directly observe finer structures and details in living cells.

Researchers discover that a mechanical cue is at the origin of cell death decision

In many species including humans, the cells responsible for reproduction, the germ cells, are often highly interconnected and share their cytoplasm. In the hermaphrodite nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up to 500 germ cells are connected to each other in the gonad, the tissue that produces eggs and sperm. These cells are arranged around a central cytoplasmic "corridor" and exchange cytoplasmic material fostering cell growth, and ultimately produce oocytes ready to be fertilized.


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